After sustained pressure from the United States and the United Nations, Nepal enacted the Narcotics Drugs (Control) Act of 1976, banning licensing of cannabis dealers and farmers, and declaring cultivation of cannabis unconstitutional. The United States has now legalized cannabis for recreational use in 15 states and two territories, while >40 countries have legalized cannabis for medical use. Nevertheless, Nepal still legally bans cannabis, which has symbolic cultural value as well as economic and medical benefits. Farmers would likely benefit from its legalization. Employment opportunities, tourism, and government revenue would increase. The trade deficit of the country can be reduced by exporting cannabis. The rising public support for the legalization of cannabis has resulted in the recent submission of a bill for its consideration in the Nepal parliament. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the status of cannabis in Nepal, including its history and potential positive impacts if it is made legal.