Global Journal of Agricultural and Allied Sciences 2020-01-26T17:27:12+00:00 GJAAS Open Journal Systems <p>Global Journal of Agricultural and Allied Sciences (GJAAS) is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed (double-blind) international journal published by the Association of Nepalese Agricultural Professionals of Americas (NAPA). GJAAS publishes high-quality original research papers and review articles on various aspects of Agricultural Sciences, including but not limited to Agricultural Ecology; Agricultural Economics; Agricultural Engineering; Agricultural Extension; Agroclimatology; Agronomy/Crop Science; Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine; Applications of Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and Crop Modeling in Agriculture; Climate Change; Environmental Science; Entomology/Plant Protection; Farming Systems and Sustainable Agriculture; Forestry/Agro-forestry; Horticulture; Natural Resources; Plant Breeding/Applied Genetics/Bio-technology; Plant Pathology; Soil Science; Weed Science, and closely related disciplines. Any article submitted to this journal should appeal to readers around the globe.</p> Rural Households' Allocation of Remittance Income in Agriculture in Nepal 2019-12-07T05:04:21+00:00 Prem Bhandari <p>This paper examines the uses of remittances in various household activities by remittance-receiving households in rural Nepal. Specifically, this paper focuses on the allocation of (a) remittances in agriculture and other dimensions of household activities, and (b) whether there is any association between the amount of remittances received and the amount allocated by households to agriculture and other dimensions. This study utilizes the detailed household level data (n=139 remittance-receiving households) collected from the Chitwan Valley in 2014, a rural migrant-sending setting of southern Nepal that collected remittances received by households and remittance used in various household activities with monthly precision in the past 12 months. Using the multilevel multivariate OLS regression, the results showed that of the total amount of remittances used, farming (e.g. purchase of seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides) received only about 3.1 percent. In contrast, a large proportion of remittance was used in buying fixed assets such as land, houses, and jewelry (27.1%), followed by food and vegetables (15.3%), savings and business investment (12.3%), loan payment (11.0%), education, (11.2%), and health (4.1%). Adjusted results from multivariate analysis (multilevel OLS) showed that the amount of remittances received by households was not significantly associated with its use in farming. However, the amount of remittances received was positively associated with the amount used in buying fixed assets, media (electronic) items, clothing, covering cultural expenses, paying utilities, and repaying debt. Implications from the findings are presented.</p> 2019-12-06T02:02:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Global Journal of Agricultural and Allied Sciences Characterization of Intercrop Movement of <em>Lygus hesperus</em> between Cotton and Alfalfa 2019-12-07T05:04:24+00:00 Ram B. Shrestha Megha Parajulee <p><em>Lygus</em> <em>hesperus</em> Knight (Miridae: Hemiptera), a key pest of cotton in the United States, is a highly polyphagous insect. Upland cotton (<em>Gossypium hirsutum </em>L. var. <em>hirsutum</em>) and alfalfa (<em>Medicago sativa</em> L<em>.</em>) are two major field crop hosts of <em>Lygus hesperus</em> in the Texas High Plains. While alfalfa is considered a source of <em>Lygus</em> in cotton, <em>Lygus</em> intercrop movement behavior has not been fully characterized in cotton-alfalfa systems. Understanding the intercrop movement behavior of <em>Lygus</em> may facilitate better decision-making for <em>Lygus</em> management in these crops. A series of studies including a mark-release-recapture study and season-long field monitoring of <em>Lygus</em> were conducted in the Texas High Plains, USA. Season-long field marking and monitoring of <em>Lygus</em> intercrop movement revealed bidirectional <em>Lygus</em> movement and confirmed that <em>Lygus</em> preferred alfalfa over cotton. Net movement of <em>Lygus</em> between cotton and alfalfa was influenced by cotton phenology. A “two-crop/two-marker” field-marking and monitoring approach was successfully applied in characterizing <em>Lygus</em> seasonal intercrop movement. This approach can be used to study the effect of various crop management practices on <em>Lygus</em> intercrop movement and is applicable to other pests and cropping systems.</p> 2019-12-04T01:31:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Global Journal of Agricultural and Allied Sciences Climate Change-Resilient Rice Production Technology: A High Yielding, Water Efficient and Remunerative Option for South Asian Farmers 2020-01-22T02:17:49+00:00 Benukar Biswas J Timsina S R Patra D De B Mishra R Chakraborti A Patra B Mahato P Banerjee P K Ghosh J Mukherjee S Das S Sarkar S Adhikary M Mondal S Kanthal S Baidya S Banerjee B Mandal B R Ray <p>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) production in South Asia is increasingly threatened by the erratic nature of onset of monsoon rain and climate change. Wide variance in rainfall pattern affects the timing of nursery raising and transplanting later in the main field. Existing rice cultivation practices such as direct seeded rice using drum seeder (DSR), system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional transplanting (CT) are not able to address the production problems adequately. Therefore, we developed a package of practices - Climate Change-Resilient Rice Production Technology (CRRPT) - which allows keeping rice seedlings in the seedbed for an extended period to synchronize with the onset of monsoon rain. On-station trials during 2015-2016 comparing CRRPT with DSR, SRI and CT demonstrated that in CRRPT the seedlings can be maintained successfully in the seedbed for up to 55 days while achieving the equivalent yield of CT (30 days seedling) because of improved plant vigour. The CRRPT seedlings of 25 d and 35 d gave 22% and 11% more yield compared to CT (30 d seedling). Total water requirement in CRRPT was reduced by 20%, 14% and 13% in case of 55d, 45d and 35 d seedling, respectively, compared to that for CT (30 d seedling). In an on-farm study with 120 farmers’ fields in West Bengal during 2017-2018, average yield increased by 32% and net profit increased by 96%. Thus, CRRPT is remunerative, water efficient, climate change-resilient and can be easily adopted in the farmers’ fields. Results demonstrate that there is wide scope for its adoption for sustainable rice production in West Bengal and South Asia.</p> 2019-12-04T01:27:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Global Journal of Agricultural and Allied Sciences Water, Nutrient, and Energy-use Efficiencies of No-till Rainfed Cropping Systems with or without Residue Retention in a Semi-Arid Dryland Area 2019-12-07T05:04:29+00:00 Lal Amgain Ajit Sharma Jagadish Timsina Pradeep Wagle <p>No-till rainfed cropping systems are being considered by farmers to make farming more profitable by reducing production costs, thereby enhancing resource-use efficiency. Field studies were conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi during rainy and winter seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 to examine consumptive use of water (CW), water-use efficiency (WUE), nutrient uptake and balance, and energy-use efficiency (EUE) of nine diverse cropping systems based on three rainy season crops - pearl millet (<em>Pennisetum glaucum</em> (L.) R. Br.), cluster bean (<em>Cyamopsis tetragonoloba</em> L.), and green gram (<em>Vigna radiata</em> L. Wilczek) followed by three winter crops - wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.), chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum</em> L.), and mustard (<em>Brassica juncea</em> L.) in each of those three rainy season crop planted fields under no-till semi-arid rainfed conditions. Three residue treatments [i.e., no residue, crop residue, and Ipil-ipil {<em>Leucaena leucocephala</em> (Lam) twigs}] were examined for both rainy season and winter crops. Retention of crop residues significantly increased soil moisture, CW, and WUE in all cropping systems. Good growth of mustard, chickpea, and wheat after cluster bean, and a large amount of cluster bean green pods resulted in substantially higher CW and WUE of cluster bean-based systems compared to pearl millet- and green gram-based systems. Crop nutrient uptake increased substantially under crop residue and <em>Leucaena</em> twigs treatments compared to no-residue control plots due to enhanced crop growth and augmentation of nutrients. However, nutrient uptake and apparent nutrient balances varied greatly among cropping systems. Energy input requirement increased by approximately 10 times under crop residue and <em>Leucaena</em> twigs treatments. As a result, net energy balance and EUE were substantially higher for no-residue treatments. <em>Leucaena</em> twigs treatments had higher net energy balance and EUE than crop residue treatments, indicating the importance of leguminous residues in crop production. Results indicate the necessity of exercising optimal balance between retention of crop residues and energy inputs for the long-term soil health and sustainability of cropping systems.</p> 2019-12-03T03:47:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Global Journal of Agricultural and Allied Sciences Growth and Yield Response of Wheat to Tillage, Rice Residue and Weed Management under Rice–Wheat Cropping System 2020-01-26T17:27:12+00:00 Bisheshwor Prasad Pandey Tanka Prasad Kandel <p>Recent decades have seen many changes in agricultural production systems in Nepal, such as increased mechanization for harvesting of major cereal crops, which leaves a large volume of crop residue in the field, increased herbicide application for weed control, and increased adoption of reduced tillage systems. In this study, we compared the effects of tillage, rice residue and weed managements on yield and yield attributes of wheat cultivated under rice-wheat rotation in the Southern Plain (Terai) region of Nepal. The study was conducted during the wheat growing seasons (November through April) of 2013–2014, 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 in Rupandehi district. The experiment was deployed in a split-split plot design with tillage system as main plot [conventional tillage (CT) and zero tillage (ZT)], residue removal management as a sub-plot [whole residue retained (WR), partial residue retained (PR) and no residue retained (NR)], and weed management as a sub-sub plot [(manual weeding (MW) and chemical weeding (CW)], replicated three times. Analysis of variance was applied to the yield and yield attributes of wheat for fixed and interaction effects. Averaged across the years, the CT system (2.4 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) had significantly higher yield than ZT (2.2 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) but the difference was not consistent in all study years. While rice residue retention did not influence grain yield in Year1, WR produced greatest and NR produced lowest yield in Year2 and Year3, indicating potential yield increase in wheat following the whole rice residue retention in the long run. Grain yield did not significantly vary with weed management method, suggesting that manual weed control can be as effective as herbicide in weed management in wheat agroecosystem in the Southern Plains (Terai) region of Nepal.</p> 2020-01-26T17:19:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Global Journal of Agricultural and Allied Sciences